For a telescope to accurately track the sky motion of any celestial object like planets, stars, and deep-sky objects, precise polar alignment is needed. This is true for any equatorial telescope, both for manual and electronic types. Without proper polar alignment, objects will always drift out of view making it impossible to perform lengthy and detailed observations. In astrophotography, poor polar alignment would mean sad-looking star trails in captured images.
To polar-align your telescope, first, we need to find the pole star, Polaris.
Since the Philippines is located approximately 15 degrees above the equator, Polaris should be approximately 15 degrees from the northern horizon. You may use the 2 bright stars of the Big Dipper in locating Polaris. Point the telescope’s polar axis towards Polaris to achieve rough polar alignment.
For more precise alignment, most telescope mounts nowadays feature what is called a polar scope, a type of ‘finder scope’ placed in the polar axis of a telescope to help check alignment with the pole star (Polaris).
Looking through the polar scope, you should see a star map with markings similar to the one below.
Since the polar axis of the Earth does not exactly point at Polaris, polar scopes are provided with a calibrated star map. The idea is not to position Polaris exactly at the center, but instead, on a pre-defined location (off-center) on the star map.
This calibrated star map must correspond to the actual position of sky objects. Rotate the star map by turning the polar scope’s barrel clockwise or counter clockwise.
You can then make fine adjustments with the mount to help center Polaris in the pre-defined spot. Most telescope mounts with polar scopes have knobs to move the polar axis (along with the polar scope) in an up-down and left-right direction.
Adjust the knobs (turn) as necessary. Precise polar alignment is achieved by centering Polaris in the pre-defined spot in the calibrated starmap.
A polar-aligned telescope should be useful enough for visual observations and most lunar, solar, and planetary imaging.